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Note:

Oracle SQL Developer 3.1 is available for Windows XP, Vista (including 64-bit), Windows 7 (including 64-bit), and Windows Server 2008, Linux or Mac OS X. Oracle to MS SQL Download. I would think installing SQL.Plus on the Mac would be point, click download, point click, install bam it works. It did install mostly straight forward on my old Mac. Got a new Mac and no dice. Tried installing myself guessing at the downloads. First of all why isn’t there just one download?

This guide assumes that you plan to download the SQL Developer kit (.zip) file and install it as a freestanding tool.

If you plan to use SQL Developer as part of an Oracle Database release installation, see the Oracle Database installation documentation.

Please read the information in this chapter before you install Oracle SQL Developer. This chapter contains the following major sections:

This section describes the recommended minimum values for CPU, memory, display, disk storage, and other resources on the supported systems.

Note:

SQL Developer requires JDK 7 or later, and Oracle recommends that you use the latest available JDK, which you can download from:

Table 1–1 Recommendations for Windows Systems

ResourceRecommended Minimum Value

Operating System

Windows XP-Service Pack 2

Windows 2003 R2

Windows Vista

Windows Server 2008

Windows 7

CPU Type and Speed

Pentium IV 2 GHz MHz or faster

Memory

1 GB RAM

Display

65536 colors, set to at least 1024 X 768 resolution

Hard Drive Space

42 MB if you already have JDK 7 or later

110 MB if you do not have JDK 7 or later

Java SDK

JDK 7 or later for Windows, available at: http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/java/javase/downloads/jdk7-downloads-1880260.html.

Table 1–2 Recommendations for Linux Systems

ResourceRecommended Minimum Value

Operating System

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3.0

Fedora Core 4

CPU Type and Speed

Pentium IV 2 GHz or faster

Memory

1 GB RAM

Display

65536 colors, set to at least 1024 X 768 resolution

Hard Drive Space

110 MB

Java SDK

JDK 7 or later for Linux, available at: http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/java/javase/downloads/jdk7-downloads-1880260.html

Table 1–3 Recommendations for Mac OS X Systems

ResourceRecommended Minimum Value

Operating System

Apple Mac OS X Version 10.4.x

CPU Type and Speed

Dual 1.25 GHz G4/G5 (1 GHz G4 minimum)

Memory

1.5 GB RAM (1 GB minimum)

Display

‘Thousands’ of colors

Hard Drive Space

110 MB

Java SDK

JDK 7 or later

This section contains subsections with instructions for installing SQL Developer on all supported systems.

SQL Developer does not require an installer. To install SQL Developer, you will need an unzip tool. You can download a free, cross-platform unzip tool, Info-Zip, available at http://www.info-zip.org/.

Important:

Do not install SQL Developer into any existing ORACLE_HOME. You will not be able to uninstall it using Oracle Universal Installer.

Also, do not install SQL Developer into an existing sqldeveloper folder or directory. Either delete the existing sqldeveloper folder or directory first, or ensure that the new SQL Developer version is installed into a different location.

Important:

If you are using a prerelease (Early Adopter) version of SQL Developer, and if you want to be able to continue to use this prerelease version after installing the official release kit, you must unzip the official release kit into a different directory than the one used for the prerelease version.

If Oracle Database (Release 11 or later) is also installed, a version of SQL Developer is also included and is accessible through the menu system under Oracle. This version of SQL Developer is separate from any SQL Developer kit that you download and unzip on your own, so do not confuse the two, and do not unzip a kit over the SQL Developer files that are included with Oracle Database. Suggestion: Create a shortcut for the SQL Developer executable file that you install, and always use it to start SQL Developer.

Before you install SQL Developer, look at the remaining sections of this guide to see if you need to know or do anything else first.

The steps for installing SQL Developer depend on whether or not you will be using it on a Windows system that does not have Java SDK (JDK) release 7 or later installed:

  • For a Windows system with JDK release 7 or later installed, follow the instructions in Section 1.2.1.
  • For all other systems (Linux and Mac OS X systems, and Windows systems with no JDK release 7 or later installed), follow the instructions in Section 1.2.2.

If a Windows 64-bit SQL Developer kit that includes JDK 7 is available, you can download and install that on a Windows 64-bit system, and SQL Developer will use the embedded JDK that is provided with that kit.

However, if you need or simply want to use a JDK on your Windows 64-bit system, you can install the JDK (if it is not already installed) and the Windows 32/64-bit SQL Developer kit, and SQL Developer will use the JDK that is installed on your system.

Note:

Do not install SQL Developer into an existing sqldeveloper folder. Either delete the existing sqldeveloper folder first, or ensure that the new SQL Developer version is installed into a different location.

To install on a Windows system, follow these steps:

  1. Go to the Oracle Technology Network page for SQL Developer at http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/developer-tools/sql-developer/
  2. Note:
  3. If a Windows 64-bit SQL Developer kit that includes JDK 7 is available, you can download and install that on a Windows 64-bit system, and SQL Developer will use the embedded JDK that is provided with that kit.
  4. However, if you need or simply want to use a JDK on your Windows 64-bit system, you can install the JDK (if it is not already installed) and the Windows 32/64-bit SQL Developer kit, and SQL Developer will use the JDK that is installed on your system.
  5. If you do not need or want to install a suitable Java Development Kit (JDK 7 or later), go to step 3. Otherwise, download and install the JDK as follows:
  6. On the SQL Developer Downloads page (http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/developer-tools/sql-developer/downloads/index.html), click the Download link next to SQL Developer requires JDK 7 or above.
  7. On the Java SE Development Kit 7 Downloads page, in the table of Java SE Development Kits, accept the Oracle Binary Code License Agreement for Java SE.
  8. Click the link for the download that you need (for example, the Windows x64 link for a Windows 64-bit system).
  9. Save the file anywhere on your system (such as a ‘temp’ folder).
  10. Install the JDK (for example, on Windows, double-click the .exe file name and follow the displayed instructions).
  11. On the Oracle Technology Network page for SQL Developer at http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/developer-tools/sql-developer/, click the Downloads tab (next to Overview).
  12. Read and accept the license agreement.
  13. Follow the instructions for downloading and installing SQL Developer.

The installation itself is simple. For example, on a Windows PC you can unzip the downloaded file into C:, which will create C:sqldeveloper with files and folders in and under it.

If you are asked to enter the full pathname for the JDK, click Browse and find it. For example, on a Windows system the path might have a name similar to C:Program FilesJavajdk1.7.0_51.

  1. Unzip the SQL Developer kit into a folder (directory) of your choice, which will be referred to as <sqldeveloper_install>. Ensure that the Use folder names option is checked when unzipping the kit.
  2. Unzipping the SQL Developer kit causes a folder named sqldeveloper to be created under the <sqldeveloper_install> folder. For example, if you unzip the kit into C:, the folder C:sqldeveloper is created, along with several subfolders under it.
  3. To start SQL Developer, go to <sqldeveloper_install>sqldeveloper, and double-click sqldeveloper.exe.

If you are asked to enter the full pathname for the JDK, click Browse and find java.exe. For example, the path might have a name similar to C:Program FilesJavajdk1.7.0_51.

After SQL Developer starts, you can connect to any database by right-clicking the Connections node in the Connections Navigator and selecting New Connection. Alternatively, if you have any exported connections (see Section 1.4 or Section 1.10), you can import these connections and use them.

You can learn about SQL Developer by clicking Help, then Table of Contents, and reading the help topics under SQL Developer Concepts and Usage.

SQL Developer requires that JDK 7 or later be installed on the system, and Oracle recommends that you install the latest available JDK version. If you need to install a JDK, go to http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/java/javase/downloads/jdk7-downloads-1880260.html.

Note:

Do not install SQL Developer into an existing sqldeveloper directory. Either delete the existing sqldeveloper directory first, or ensure that the new SQL Developer version is installed into a different location.

Note:

On Macintosh systems, a native Macintosh application in the form sqldeveloperxxx.tar.gz is provided. When it is expanded, it appears as a Macintosh application that can be put into the applications folder. If you choose to expand this file, it will replace any older sqldeveloper applications in that folder.

To install and start SQL Developer, follow these steps:

  1. Unzip the SQL Developer kit into a directory (folder) of your choice. (Ensure that the Use folder names option is checked when unzipping the kit.) This directory location will be referred to as <sqldeveloper_install>.
  2. Unzipping the SQL Developer kit causes a directory named sqldeveloper to be created under the <sqldeveloper_install> directory. It also causes many files and directories to be placed in and under that directory.
  3. To start SQL Developer, go to the sqldeveloper directory under the <sqldeveloper_install> directory, and run sh sqldeveloper.sh.

After SQL Developer starts, you can connect to any database by right-clicking the Connections node in the Connections Navigator and selecting New Connection. Alternatively, if you have any exported connections (see Section 1.4, ‘Migrating Information from Previous Releases’ or Section 1.10, ‘Uninstalling SQL Developer’), you can import these connections and use them.

You can learn about SQL Developer by clicking Help, then Table of Contents, and reading the help topics under SQL Developer Concepts and Usage.

The first time you start SQL Developer after installing it or after adding any extensions, you are asked if you want to migrate your user settings from a previous release. (This occurs regardless of whether there was a previous release on your system.)

These settings refer to database connections, reports, and certain SQL Developer user preferences that you set in a previous version by clicking Tools and then Preferences. However, some user preferences are not saved, and you must respecify these using the new release.

To migrate user settings from a previous SQL Developer release:

  1. Unzip the kit for the current release so as to create a new sqldeveloper directory.
  2. When you start the SQL Developer current release, click Yes when asked if you want to migrate settings from a previous release.
  3. In the dialog box that is displayed, you can accept the default option to migrate the settings from the most recent SQL Developer installation. Or, if you want to migrate the settings from an earlier installation, you can click to show all builds and then select the desired one.

See also Section 1.4, ‘Migrating Information from Previous Releases’.

If you have used a previous release of SQL Developer, you may want to preserve database connections that you have been using. To preserve database connections, save your existing database connections in an XML file. To save the connections, right-click the Connections node in the Connections Navigator and select Export Connections. After you complete the installation described in this guide, you can use those connections by right-clicking the Connections node in the Connections Navigator and selecting Import Connections

If you want to use any user-defined reports or the SQL history from a previous version, see Section 1.5 for information about where these are located. If you have user-defined reports and SQL history from Release 1.0, they are modified by any later SQL Developer release to a format that is different from and incompatible with Release 1.0.

SQL Developer preferences (specified by clicking Tools and then Preferences) from a prerelease version of the current release cannot currently be saved and reused; you must respecify any desired preferences.

Note:

If you want to uninstall your prerelease version of SQL Developer before installing this release, see Section 1.10, ‘Uninstalling SQL Developer’.

SQL Developer stores user-related information in several places, with the specific location depending on the operating system and certain environment specifications. User-related information includes user-defined reports, user-defined snippets, SQL Worksheet history, code templates, and SQL Developer user preferences. In most cases, your user-related information is stored outside the SQL Developer installation directory hierarchy, so that it is preserved if you delete that directory and install a new version.

The user-related information is stored in or under the IDE_USER_DIR environment variable location, if defined; otherwise as indicated in Table 1-4, which shows the typical default locations (under a directory or in a file) for specific types of resources on different operating systems. (Note the period in the name of any directory named .sqldeveloper.)

Table 1–4 Default Locations for User-Related Information

Resource TypeSystem (Windows, Linux, or Mac OS X)

User-defined reports

Windows: C:Documents and Settings<user-name>Application DataSQL DeveloperUserReports.xml

Linux or Mac OS X: ~/.sqldeveloper/UserReports.xml

User-defined snippets

Windows: C:Documents and Settings<user-name>Application DataSQL DeveloperUserSnippets.xml

Linux: ~/.sqldeveloper/UserSnippets.xml

Mac OS X: /Users/<Your user>/Library/Application Support/ SQLDeveloper/UserSnippets.xml

SQL history

Windows: C:Documents and Settings<user-name>Application DataSQL DeveloperSqlHistory.xml

Linux: ~/.sqldeveloper/SqlHistory.xml

Mac OS X: /Users/<Your user>/Library/Application Support/ SQLDeveloper/ SqlHistory.xml

Code templates

Windows: C:Documents and Settings<user-name>Application DataSQL Developer CodeTemplate.xml

Linux: ~/.sqldeveloper/CodeTemplate.xml

Mac OS X: /Users/<Your user>/Library/Application Support/ SQLDeveloper/ CodeTemplate.xml

SQL Developer user preferences

Windows: C:Documents and Settings<user-name>Application DataSQL Developersystemn.n.n.n.n

Linux or Mac OS X: ~/.sqldeveloper/systemn.n.n.n.n

If you want to prevent other users from accessing your user-specific SQL Developer information, you must ensure that the appropriate permissions are set on the directory where that information is stored or on a directory above it in the path hierarchy. For example, on a Windows system you may want to ensure that the SQL Developer folder and the <user-name>Application DataSQL Developer folder under Documents and Settings are not sharable; and on a Linux or Mac OS X system you may want to ensure that the ~/.sqldeveloper directory is not world-readable.

This section describes Oracle and non-Oracle (third-party) databases that are certified for use with SQL Developer.

Table 1–5 lists the Oracle database certifications.

Table 1–5 Oracle Database Certification for SQL Developer

ProductReleases

Oracle Database

Oracle10g

Oracle11g

Oracle12c

Oracle Database Express Edition

Release 11.2

SQL Developer can be used to view metadata and data of several non-Oracle (third-party) databases. Table 1–6 lists the third-party database certifications.

Table 1–6 Non-Oracle (Third-Party) Database Certification for SQL Developer

DatabaseReleasesNotes

IBM DB2

DB2 UDB

DB2 7.x

DB2 8.x

DB2 9.x

For any DB2 release: db2jcc.jar and db2jcc_license_cu.jar files required; available from IBM.

Microsoft Access

Access 97

Access 2000

Access XP (2002)

Access 2003

Access 2007

For any Access release: no JDBC driver needed, but you must ensure read access to system tables in the .mdb file.

Microsoft SQL Server

SQL Server 7

SQL Server 2000

SQL Server 2005

SQL Server 2008

For any Microsoft SQL Server release: JDBC driver jtds-1.2.jar required; included in jtds-1.2-dist.zip available from sourceforge.net; also available through Help, Check for Updates.

MySQL

MySQL 3.x

MySQL 4.x

MySQL 5.x

For any MySQL release: JDBC driver required. For MySQL 5.x: mysql-connector-java-5.0.4-bin.jar, which is included in mysql-connector-java-5.0.4.zip; also available through Help, Check for Updates. (Do not use the latest MySQL driver 5.1.)

Sybase Adaptive Server

Sybase 12

Sybase 15

For any Sybase Adaptive Server release: JDBC driver jtds-1.2.jar required; included in jtds-1.2-dist.zip available from sourceforge.net; also available through Help, Check for Updates.

Teradata

Teradata 12

Teradata 13

JDBC driver files tdgssconfig.jar and terajdbc4.jar required; included (along with a readme.txt file) in the TeraJDBC__indep_indep.12.00.00.110.zip or TeraJDBC__indep_indep.12.00.00.110.tar download.

For information about creating and using connections to third-party databases, see the information about database connections in the SQL Developer online help or Oracle SQL Developer User’s Guide.

You are encouraged to use Oracle Advanced Security to secure a JDBC connection to the database. Both the JDBC OCI and the JDBC Thin drivers support at least some of the Oracle Advanced Security features. If you are using the OCI driver, you can set relevant parameters in the same way that you would in any Oracle client setting. The JDBC Thin driver supports the Oracle Advanced Security features through a set of Java classes included with the JDBC classes in a Java Archive (JAR) file and supports security parameter settings through Java properties objects.

For the latest configuration information or for information on addressing accessibility and assistive technology issues, see the Oracle Accessibility FAQ at http://www.oracle.com/us/corporate/accessibility/faqs/.

Also, check the SQL Developer release notes (readme.txt file) to see if there are any currently known issues regarding accessibility.

Note:

Unless otherwise indicated, the information is this section also applies to Data Modeler and Data Miner.

To make the best use of our accessibility features, Oracle Corporation recommends the following minimum configuration:

  • Windows XP, Windows Vista
  • Java 7 Update 6
  • Java 7 Update 6 includes the Java Access Bridge. For more information, including how to enable the Java Access Bridge, see: https://blogs.oracle.com/javaaccessibility/entry/java_se_7_update_6
  • However, if you are using Java J2SE 1.6.0_24 or higher but before Java 7 Update 6, you must manually install Java Access Bridge 2.0.2 after you install the screen reader (if it is not already installed). Download Java Access Bridge for Windows version 2.0.2. The file you will download is accessbridge-2_0_2-fcs-bin-b06.zip. It is available from: http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/java/javase/tech/index-jsp-136191.html (Refer to the Java Access Bridge documentation available from this website for more information about installation and the Java Access Bridge.)
  • JAWS 12.0.522

Follow these steps to set up a screen reader and Java Access Bridge.

  1. Install the screen reader, if it is not already installed.
  2. Refer to the documentation for your screen reader for more information about installation.
  3. Install SQL Developer.
  4. If you are using Java J2SE 1.6.0_24 or higher but before Java 7 Update 6, go to Section 1.9.1, ‘If You Need to Install Java Access Bridge’ and follow the instructions there.
  5. Start your screen reader.
  6. Start SQL Developer by running the file sqldeveloper.exe located in the folder <sqldev_home>sqldevelopersqldevbin.

The preceding steps assume you are running Windows and using a Windows-based screen reader. A console window that contains error information (if any) will open first and then the main SQL Developer window will appear, after SQL Developer has started. Any messages that appear will not affect the functionality of SQL Developer.

If you are using Java J2SE 1.6.0_24 or later but before Java 7 Update 6, you must manually install Java Access Bridge 2.0.2 after you install the screen reader (if it is not already installed).

  1. Download Java Access Bridge for Windows version 2.0.2. The file you will download is accessbridge-2_0_2-fcs-bin-b06.zip. It is available from: http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/java/javase/tech/index-jsp-136191.html.
  2. Refer to the Java Access Bridge documentation available from this website for more information about installation and the Java Access Bridge.
  3. Extract (unzip) the contents to a folder, for example, accessbridge_home.
  4. Install Java Access Bridge by running Install.exe from the <accessbridge_home>installer folder.
  5. The installer first checks the JDK version for compatibility, then the Available Java virtual machines dialog displays.
  6. Click Search Disks. Then select to search only the drive that contains the SQL Developer build and the JDK version in the program files directory (if it exists).
  7. The search process can take a long time on a large disk with many instances of JDK or SQL Developer, or when searching multiple disks. However, unless you complete an exhaustive search of your disk, Access Bridge will not be optimally configured, and will not be correctly installed to all of the Java VMs on your system. After selecting the disk to search, click Search.
  8. Confirm that you want to install the Java Access Bridge into each of the Java virtual machines displayed in the dialog, by clicking Install in All.
  9. Click OK when you see the Installation Completed message.
  10. Confirm that the following files have been installed in the WinntSystem32 directory (or the equivalent Windows XP or Vista directory), or copy them from <accessbridge_home>installerfiles because they must be in the system path in order to work with SQL Developer:
  11. Note that the system directory is required in the PATH system variable.
  12. Note:
  13. In the remaining steps in this section, if you are using the SQL Developer kit that does not include a JDK (that is, if the kit file name ends in -no-jre-zip), replace <sqldev_home> with <jdev_home>.
  14. Confirm that the following files have been installed in the <sqldev_home>jdkjrelibext directory, or copy them from <accessbridge_home>installerfiles:
  15. Note:
  16. For Data Modeler, for this step and any remaining steps in this section that refer to <sqldev_home>, replace <sqldev_home> with <datamodeler_home>.
  17. Confirm that the file accessibility.properties has been installed in the <sqldev_home>jdkjrelib directory, or copy it from <accessbridge_home>installerfiles.
  18. Start your screen reader.
  19. Start SQL Developer by running the file sqldeveloper.exe located in the folder <sqldev_home>sqldevelopersqldevbin.

Before you uninstall SQL Developer, if you plan to install SQL Developer (the same or an updated version) later, you may want to save your existing database connections; and if so, see Section 1.4 before uninstalling.

To uninstall SQL Developer, remove the entire SQL Developer installation directory (that is, the directory named sqldeveloper and all directories and files under it in the hierarchy).

If you also want to remove all user-specific SQL Developer information, you should also delete the directory under which that information is stored (that is, the SQL Developer user information directory). For the location of this directory, see Section 1.5.

If you have created a shortcut for SQL Developer, and if you do not plan to install SQL Developer into the same location again, you should remove that shortcut or modify the shortcut properties to reflect the new location.

SQL Developer provides user documentation in the Oracle SQL Developer User’s Guide and in the online help. To see the help, click the Help menu, or click the Help button or press the F1 key in relevant contexts while you are using SQL Developer.

In addition to the user’s guide and installation guide, the following migration-related guides are available:

Oracle provides a number of resources on the web. These are some sites you may find helpful:

Since I wrote this article in 2007 there have been new releases of Oracle (including 10g Express Edition for Linux),Parallels, VirtualBox, Mac OS and every flavour of Linux.Ubuntu has become a favourite desktop Linux, and is now supported by Oracle, including a convenient XE installation.Parallels Tools now provides file sharing for Linux, and Oracle provides pre-built VirtualBox demo VMs for download.Many of us who moaned about the lack of an Oracle version for Mac have found that we don’t really need one after all.

I have not updated the document to reflect these changes.If you just want a quick and easy Oracle installation,have a look at Oracle Express Edition for Linux.You still have to increase the swap space as shown below, but otherwise the installer takes care of just about everything.

Back in 2002, Oracle announced 9.2 Early Adopters’ Edition for Mac OS 10.2. It was theoretically for OSX Server rather than the desktops and laptops we allwanted it for, you had to jump through a few hoops to get it working, it had no internal JVM, it didn’t do Native Compilation, and SQL*Plus took up to tenseconds to connect. However, I had Oracle on my G3 iMac and that was pretty cool.

A couple of years later, out came 10g for Mac OS 10.3. This was a simpler install, everything worked, and we seemed to be getting somewhere.Unfortunately, there progress stopped. When Mac OS 10.4 came out, you could just about install 10g if youjumped through some more hoops — but soon there was a new range of Macs that ran on something called an ‘Intel chip’, and Oracle did not run on that.So from 2006 with the whole Apple range now running on Intel, there is no Oracle product for either the OS version or the hardware platform.

However, Parallels Desktop For Mac has been getting some great write-ups, as it makes use of the Mac’sshiny new Intel chip to run software compiled for Intel with almost native efficiency.A virtual database server even has some advantages, since you’ll get a client-server setup that’s similar to many commercial Oracle installations.It’ll also be easy to experiment with configurations, and you can make a backup by simply copying the Parallels .hdd file.

Shortly after this article was written, Howard Rogers closed the Dizwell site.Unfortunately this article linked to some excellent animated installation guides that were there.These days (as of 2015), following a complete site overhaul, he is writing again and you can download his pre-built Centos/Oracle disk image fromwww.dizwell.com.

There are other easy-to-follow CentOS and Oracle installation guides about, for example Tim Hall’s Linuxand Oracle installation guides on Oracle Base.

I hope the remainder of this article is still useful.

What we’re going to do is:

  • Create a Parallels virtual machine.
  • Install CentOS, following Howard Rogers’ CentOS installation guide for VMware (similar to Parallels).
  • Install Oracle, following Howard Rogers’ Oracle installation guide for CentOS.
  • Install Oracle Instant Client For Mac OSX so we can have SQL*Plus in a Mac Terminal window, just like old times. (The Instant Client also includes JDBC and ODBC drivers etc.)
  • Optionally, we’ll also set up iSQL*Plus, SQL Developer and anything else I can get working.

This will give us a virtual database server that will appear like another computer on the network. For most purposes we’ll be able to connect to the database from the Mac,without having to log into CentOS at all.

Parallels Desktop for Maccosts $79.99 (£42) at the time of writing, although you can download a time-limited free trial.

You also need a guest OS capable of running Oracle.Many choose Windows for its convenience and the ability to use tools such as PL/SQL Developer or(if you must) TOAD.However, Redhat Linux is an Oracle-supported platform (2006’s Oracle Unbreakable Linux is essentially Redhat with an Oracle badge),and CentOS is a free Redhat clone.You can buy CentOS on DVD (it’s very cheap since you are only paying for the distribution costs) or download a disk image in .iso format.It’s further complicated by a choice of versions (I chose CentOS 4.4 for i386), mirrors (I chose the ‘actual country’ download mirror site, in my case UK),formats (single DVD rather than multiple CD) and download methods (I chose Bittorrent). (Update: CentOS 5 is the current release as of Summer 2007.)

You can download Bittorrent free from www.bittorrent.com. With Bittorrent, you download a small control file such as CentOS-4.4-i386-binDVD.torrent, and open it in the Bittorrent application, which drives the actual download. I started it up and left it running overnight. (I’m told Bittorrrent can be extremely fast, but in my case it wasn’t. If you have problems there is a lot of help on the Net.)

At the time of writing, this is Oracle Database 10g Release 2 Enterprise/Standard Edition for Linux x86 32 bit.There is no convenient way provided to share files between the VM and the host, although we can set up an NFS share later,which allows you to access Mac files directly from Linux.

Parallels’ supplied help explains how to get this started. Essentially you create a new virtual machine (VM) using the ‘Install OS’ button, and follow the onscreen instructions.

  • Choose ‘Custom OS installation’ (Windows users get a handy Express option, but no such luck for Linux).
  • For the OS Type, choose Linux and Red Hat Linux (RHL is the same as CentOS for our purposes).
  • I gave it 756 MB of RAM (my iMac has 2 GB), and 15 GB (15360 MB) of disk space, selecting Plain rather than Expanding (it said it would run faster). You could make it bigger, but huge files are slower to back-up, copy and so on. (However, if you install Application Express you will need at least 936 MB of memory, and a bit more disk space.)
  • For the hard disk image file location, I chose a spot on my Firewire drive (a subfolder per VM is a good idea).
  • For networking, choose ‘Bridged Ethernet’ (see ‘Networking for Dummies’ box, below).
  • ‘Default adaptor’ will do (this lets it choose between Ethernet or Airport automatically), or just pick Ethernet.
  • Give the VM a name. This is the name within Parallels, not the CentOS hostname.
  • Select ‘ISO file’ for the installation media, and show it the CentOS .iso file you downloaded earlier. Hit ‘Finish’ and be prepared for a ten minute wait while it formats 15GB of disk space.

Follow Howard Rogers’ guide to installing CentOS 4.

Note however that this is written for VMware on Windows, and the networking set-up steps are subtly different in Parallels for Mac. (Those who are already familarwith this stuff will take it in their stride, but the rest of us may need to look at Networking for Dummies, below.)

Resist the urge to use the CentOS ‘Up2Date’ tool in the top right corner to get all the CentOS system tools up to date, at least until you have installed Oracle and made a backup(i.e. copied the .hdd file — or in Parallels 3.0, created a snapsot).For example some system libraries may be altered or renamed by an upgrade, and you’ll have to start tweaking installer scripts to get them to work, without really knowing what effect the changes had.

Note that ‘Parallels Tools’ are currently only available for Windows, OS/2 and Solaris, and not for CentOS. This isn’t a big deal, but just means we don’t get aconvenient way to switch context or copy and paste between the Mac and the VM.(NoMachine NX Client is worth a look, although I haven’t tried it myself. I’ll update this document if I do.)

There is also no way provided to share files between the VM and the host, but you can set up an NFS share. To keep this installation guide simple, I have written a separateNFS setup guide. (If you are not familiar with the networking involved, you may want to read ‘Networking for Dummies’, below,before tackling NFS.) With NFS in place, you can download and unzip the Oracle software to the Mac, rathr than having to download it separately withinany VM you create.

It may also be an idea to add some extra swap space, depending on how much memory you gave the VM. For example to add 512MB, execute the following commandswith root privileges (either become the root user first using the command su -, or place sudo in front of each command and enter your own password when prompted):

  • dd if=/dev/zero of=/etc/extraswap bs=1M count=512
    mkswap /etc/extraswap
    swapon /etc/extraswap
  • Edit /etc/fstab to include the line:
    /etc/extraswap swap swap defaults 0 0
  • After adding the new swap file and enabling it, make sure it is enabled by viewing the output of the command cat /proc/swaps or free -m (the ‘-m’ option makes it display in megabytes).

Parallels provides three Network Adapter options, which represent the different ways the VM can connect to the local network.The static IP address will depend on the network adaptor we select.(You can easily change it later, so feel free to experiment.)

  • Bridged Ethernet: the VM becomes a peer of the Mac. They will be in effect two machines sharing a common network gateway, which means their IP addresses must be in the same range. I’ll be using this option.
  • Host-only Networking: the VM becomes a client of the Mac. It can only see (and be seen by) its host machine, and won’t have Internet access. Its IP address should be in the same range as ‘Parallels Host-Guest’ (see screenshot below).
  • Shared Networking (Network Address Translation): the VM and the Mac will appear as a single machine. Parallels recommend this for a quick and easy general purpose set-up, but it is not ideal for a database server.

At the Network Configuration screen in the CentOS installer, the default setting is to use DHCP. You do not want to use this.DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) is great at automating network configuration,but because it dynamically hands out temporary IP addresses, any Oracle utility you configure by specifying the IP address will break sooner or later at the whim of DHCP.

In VMware on Windows (as in Howard’s guide) you would check the VMware settings to find the VM’s name on the network, such as’VMnet1', type ipconfig in a cmd window to see VMnet1’s IP address, and use that information to pick a new static IP address back in the CentOSinstaller. However, this is where VMware and Windows differ from Mac OSX and Parallels. OSX does have an ‘ipconfig’ command, but it’s a rather different beast and requiresa bunch of additional parameters depending on what type of information you are interested in.

The related command ifconfig gives me output like this (I’ve changed a few random values in case any hackers are reading this):

The label on the left identifies the network device, in this case en0, the Mac’s Ethernet connection(I used the -u en0 option so it only shows en0, and not Airport or my Firewire drive)and it’s telling me that its address is 10.0.1.2 and the subnet mask is 255.255.255.0 (shown in hexadecimal as ff ff ff 00).

Alternatively, open System Preferences, Network, and look at the ‘Network Status’ page: you may see an entry something like this (depending on your network connection of course),which tells me that my Mac’s internal IP address is10.0.1.2:1This is behind my firewall — when I connect to a public Internet website I will appear to have a different address, set by my ISP.

If you are on wi-fi it’s even easier — Option-click the Wi-Fi symbol in the menu bar.

The two Parallels entries below it apply to Host-Only Networking and Shared Networking. Since I’m not using either of these right now they are not relevant.The new static address I’m going to use for CentOS will be of the form 10.0.1.xxx; that is, matching the Mac’s address but with a different number in the finalslot.2 If we were using Host-only Networking as in Howard’s example, we would read the ‘Parallels Host-Guest’ address from the ‘System Preferences, Network’ screen, and choose an address in the same range, for example 10.37.129.10.

The two other pieces of information you will need are the addresses of the DNS server and the default gateway(in my case the router, although in some setups it could also be a proxy server). DNS looks up names such as ‘williamrobertson.net’ and translates them into IP addresses.On home setups it’s common for the DNS server and router to share the same address (but don’t count on it).There are various ways to find this information, but the easy way to find the router address isby selecting ‘Built-in Ethernet’ in the ‘System Preferences, Network’ screen above. Here, my router is at 10.0.1.1 and my subnet mask is 255.255.255.0:

Yet another way, which also tells you the DNS address, is using the command ipconfig getpacket en0:

The line with ‘server_identifier’ shows the gateway address, and the one with ‘domain_name_server’ shows the DNS address. In this case they are both 10.0.1.1.

The CentOS installer applies these settings for you, but you can edit them later in the CentOS ‘System Settings, Network’ screen:

If you set up NFS, then you can download and unzip Oracle on the Mac, into a directory you share using NFS(www.oracle.com, Downloads, look for Database 10g for Linux, 32 bit).3 While it’s downloading, it might be a good time to install your favourite Firefox bookmark synchronisation service — I use Foxmarks. Then within CentOS you can simply cd to that directory and execute ./runInstaller.Otherwise, you’ll have to download Oracle from inside CentOS.You might as well also download the Oracle Database 10g Companion CD while you’re at it (672 MB) if you are going to want to install Application Express later.

There isn’t much I can add to Howard Rogers’ guide to installing Oracle 10g Release 2 on Centos 4.3 & 4.4.Follow that. It’ll work.

I also added the following to /etc/bashrc for a more friendly prompt:

This sets the prompt as the current directory name, in bold.

OEM has to be started manually:

Howard suggests editing /etc/rc.d/init.d/dbora (the database startup script called during the boot process) to have itstart up OEM. I had mine start up iSQL*Plus (see below) as well. I added the following lines to the ‘start’ section:

Note the URL displayed on the command line when you call emctl, which is http://hostname:1158/em/console/aboutApplication, where hostname is the name you set when installing Centos.You can actually control-click this URL and it will load in Firefox.However, it is rather more useful to be able to do this from the Mac.

Add an entry to the Mac’s /etc/hosts file to map a name to the address, for example:

Now we can enter the Enterprise Manager URL into a browser, and behold the moment of truth:

Although the RDBMS software itself won’t run on Intel Mac, it turns out that SQL*Plus does.The client software will also allow other applications to connect to the database.

  • Find ‘Macintosh OSX’ and download both the Basic and SQL*Plus packages from the Instant Client downloads page.
  • Move the contents of both into a single convenient folder (I used /Applications/Application_folders/instantclient).
  • Add the location to your PATH variable, and also set DYLD_LIBRARY_PATH to point to it; for example:
  • Fire up SQL*Plus, using the fully-qualified host and service names:
  • Here’s a rather basic shell script for starting SQL*Plus. Save the following in convenient directory and name it sql. (If you’re worried that someone might snoop your password by entering ps -auxU williamr | grep sqlplus, or if you want to allow for multiple VMs, it’ll take a bit more work). A marginally more flexible version is here. (It assumes you have gqlplus — see below.)

This gives a better SQL*Plus command-line experience (or should do). To quote the documentation:

gqlplus is a UNIX front-end program for Oracle command-line utility sqlplus. gqlplus is functionally nearly identical to sqlplus, with theaddition of command-line editing, history, table-name and optional column-name completion. The editing is similar to tcsh and bash shells.

Unfortunately I’ve found gqlplus isn’t perfect — for example if you edit the current buffer by typing ed (with _EDITOR defined as vim or whatever)it wrecks the formatting by stripping all the leading spaces, and also strips any trailing semicolons, thus wrecking PL/SQL.ed also doesn’t recognise the ORACLE_PATH environment variable and therefore doesn’t find my scripts, although mysteriously they run fine.Maybe this is a configuration issue and as usual I’m just missing something. I’ll update this page if I figure out how to fix it. Even so, it’s a handy thing to have.

You can install it in CentOS if you like, but it’ll run in a Mac Terminal window. You need the Oracle Instant Client set up first as it will look for a sqlplus executable.

  • Download gqlplus (zipped tarfile). The instructions tell you how to unzip (gunzip filename) and untar (tar -xvf filename), but this is a Mac and I let Firefox do it for me.
  • The download includes a README file with installation instructions, but essentially you open a Terminal window, cd to the unzipped gqlplus directory, and enter:

Now you can call gqlplus in place of sqlplus. It seems to take a little longer to start up, but it’s worth it for the ability to scroll back throughprevious commands as you can on Windows.You could call this using a slightly modified version of the above script, sql.

Although the server process is started by default when you create the database, it will need to be restarted any time you restart the database.Enter the following command in CentOS, as the oracle user:

One annoyance I’ve found with iSQL*Plus is that the font for the work area is the default proportional one, which (fairly obviously, I would have thought) isunsuitable for entering code. However, if you view the source of the page you can find the name of the stylesheet, which is

4For Internet Explorer it is blaf-A0-en-ie-5-macos.css. The ‘mozilla’ one appears to be the default and is used in non-Mozilla based browsers such as Safari and Shiira.You can edit this file, and add the following lines at the end (while I’m at it I’ll also make any DBMS_OUTPUT text monospace):

You can alter the session timeout interval from its default of 15 minutes by editing$ORACLE_HOME/oc4j/j2ee/oc4j_applications/applications/isqlplus/isqlplus/WEB-INF.

Note also that the traditional glogin.sql in $ORACLE_HOME/sql/admin is read by iSQL*Plus on startup and reconnection,so you can add things like set serveroutput on size unlimited here. (The documentation suggests that’Some privileged connections may generate errors if SET SERVEROUTPUT or SET APPINFO commands are put in the Site Profile or User Profile’, although I’m not sure whatsort of errors it means, or whether they are severe enough to offset the benefit of not having to retype the command manually each time.)

Anyway, once the server process is running, enter http://hostname:5560/isqlplus in your browser (substituting your VM’s hostname).iSQL*Plus is documented in the SQL*Plus User’s Guide and Reference.

Download from www.oracle.com/technology/products/database/sql_developer.A ready-to-run Mac OSX binary is provided (SQLDeveloper.app). I must admit I was expecting some clunky Windows Java port, but I was pleasantly surprised.The Preferences are in the wrong place, but apart from that it’s looking a lot like a real Mac application. Nice job, guys!More resources are available on the official SQL Developer mini-site.I won’t repeat the ‘Getting Started’ instructions here, as it’s just a case of clicking on the icon.

Start at the Application Express home page,which has many useful links including the download page,which in turn leads to the installation guide.

Essentially there are three steps:

  1. Install Oracle HTTP Server (also referred to as ‘Apache Standalone’), a lightweight web server, from the Companion CD (not actually a CD, but a zipped download).
  2. Run SQL*Plus script apexins.sql as SYS to install the database objects (this will create two schemas, with various tables, packages, public synonyms etc).
  3. Work through the Post-Installation Tasks in the installation guide, such as setting up a marvel.conf and starting the Oracle HTTP Server.

However in practice things were not quite so straightforward.

  • Do not use the Companion CD to install Apex. Only use it to install Oracle HTTP Server.
  • The Companion CD Release 2 available on the 10g (10.2.0.1) database download page at the time of writing (February 2007) claims to include two versions of Application Express, ‘Oracle Application Express v2.2.1’ and ‘Oracle Application Express (formerly HTML DB) v2.0’. Once you’ve run the supplied installer, however (which gives you no such choice), the ‘Installed Products’ list displays ‘Oracle HTML DB 10.2.0.1’, and actually seems to have installed 1.6.5 There may be a better way to check your Apex version, but the installer creates two user accounts, FLOWS_FILES and FLOWS_n, where n represents the version number. These accounts are listed at the end of the intaller log. In my case the initial install gave me FLOWS_016000, indicating version 1.6.
    After dropping both accounts with DROP USER CASCADE and running apexins.sql from a more recent Application Express download, I have a new FLOWS_020200 account.
  • In the Installation Requirements section it says the shared_pool_size of the target database must be at least 100 MB, and suggests entering show parameter shared_pool_size at the SQL*Plus prompt to check the current setting. However, 10g uses Automatic Shared Memory Management by default, which means shared_pool_size will be shown as 0. My sga_target is 252 MB. Does that mean I can forget about it and carry on?
  • Not quite. sga_target specifies the total size of all SGA components, of which the Shared Pool is only one. You should therefore follow the installation guide’s instructions and set shared_pool_size to 100 MB — under Automatic Shared Memory Management this will become the minimum size. (The actual size can be found in V$SGA_DYNAMIC_COMPONENTS.)
  • When running the installer for the Companion CD, it mentions that it needs to go in a separate Oracle Home, but then prompts you with the current one. (If you just hit ‘OK’ it tells you that you can’t use that one.) What should I put?
  • Oracle’s official directory structure, the Optimal Flexible Architecture, would give you something like this:
  • There is some debate about how suitable this is for small installations where all this /u01/app/oracle/product business is somewhat redundant. Perhaps I’m missing something as I’m not a DBA, but I prefer something like this:
  • Or perhaps (since Oracle HTTP Server is independent of the database release):
  • However, by this point I’d already defined the database home as /oracle/10g when installing the database, so I put the new home at /oracle/10g_http. It’s not really ideal and now it’s hard to change, as the installer hardcodes it in a large number of config files. Damn.
  • Next, the installer prompts for database details including the service name. I enter it but it fails to connect. You need to enter the fully qualified name — not simply dev10g (in my case), but dev10g.starbase.local.
  • When running the apexins.sql script, you can specify a tablespace name which will become the default tablespace for the new Apex schemas. If you want to create a new one rather than relying on the default SYSAUX, the command is as follows (adjust if your file layout is different):
  • This will create a 100 MB tablespace called ‘APEX’ that autoextends to up to 250 MB if it later runs out of space.
  • Then I specified APEX as the tablespace name when callling the script (see the installation guide). Afterwards there were 681 rows in DBA_SEGMENTS (mostly owned by FLOWS_020200) with a combined size of 84 MB, all in the new tablespace.
  • In Post-Installation Tasks, the installation guide mentions copying a directory named apex/images to a location specified in marvel.conf. However, there is no file named marvel.conf yet unless you installed via the Oracle Installer (which as you’ll recall we’re not using, as it would install the wrong version). Later on, the guide explains that you may have to create your own file, and explains how. However, the sample file shown in the document contains the line:
  • but there is no such package — it should be:
  • Also when setting the ‘images’ path in marvel.conf, be sure to include a ‘/’ (forward slash) character at the end, for example: Alias /i/ ‘/oracle/10g_httpclient/Apache/Apache/images/
  • If the shell variable LANG is set in the environment from which you start the Oracle HTTP Listener, it can cause some sort of conflict in mod_plsql resulting in an ORA-00604 error, and Apex fails to load at all. I’m afraid I didn’t have the patience to get to the bottom of this, but when $LANG had the (default) value en_GB.UTF-8 it failed, and unsetting it with unset LANG before restarting the HTTP server solved the problem.
  • As a final post-installation step, add a line to the startup script to launch Oracle HTTP Server whenever the database is started:
  • VirtualBox: recommended by Lifehacker.

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